Beginnings of Islam part 2

Beginnings of Islam part 2


– [Lecturer] Where we left
off in the last video, we saw a Muhammed being
born into a tribal Arabia. He’s born into a powerful
tribe, the Quraysh, who are in control of Mecca. But his early life is difficult. His mother dies when he’s six. His grandfather who’s taken charge of him, dies when he’s eight years old. But he’s able to, under
the care of his uncle, become a merchant. And at the age of 25, he marries
a wealthy merchant widower named Khadija who is 15 years his senior. Then we saw at age 40 in 610,
while meditating in a mountain outside of Mecca, he receives
the first revelations of the Quran, according
to Islamic tradition. And he’s skeptical of it at
first, but he’s reassured. And then he soon receives
many more revelations. And within roughly three
years, he starts to preach those revelations. Now as we mentioned in that last video, what he was preaching did not
sit well with his own tribe, those who ruled Mecca, the Quraysh. He was preaching a mono theistic tradition based on Judaism and Christianity. He was preaching that
there’s no God but God. But Mecca’s power, it’s
economy was based on people making pilgrimages there to
worship the idols at the Kaaba. So the Quraysh did not
like Muhammed’s revelations and they did not like these early Muslims, and they persecuted them. They killed them, they tortured them, and we saw in 615 the
migration of some of Muhammed’s followers to Abyssinia,
the Kingdom of Aksum, modern day Eritrea and Ethiopia, to escape some of that persecution. Things got worse for Muhammed. We saw in that last video,
the death of his first wife and up to that point, his only wife. And this is where we start
to see a bit of turning point for Muhammed and his followers. In 620 and this is according
to Muslim traditions, there isn’t historical evidence for this, and this is one of the
more metaphysical events that we’ll talk about in this narrative. But according to the Islamic faith, in 620 Muhammed has a
night journey from Mecca to the farthest mosque,
which today is believed by many Muslims to be the Al-Aqsa mosque, which was built later in Jerusalem. So right over here. So a night journey according
to the Muslim faith, to Jerusalem where he
ascended with Gabriel to the heavens and he conversed with some of the prophets of old. And once again, this is
clearly a metaphysical thing, but it’s significant
event in the Muslim faith. Now the Quraysh continued
to persecute Muhammed and the early Muslims in Mecca. We have some of them that are
now in the Kingdom of Aksum. And Muhammed learns that
there’s a community, a growing community of Muslims
in the town of Yathrib, who are starting to follow
Muhammed or his revelations. And they come to him and they invite him to come to Yathrib because
there’s actually a lot of fragmentation, there’s waring tribes. And they’re seeking an outsider
to help bring some peace and authority to this place
where there is already a burgeoning Muslim community. So in 622, you have the famous migration of Muhammed and his followers to Yathrib. Which is renamed Medina. And Medina literally means The City. And from then on it
really becomes the base of Muhammed and the early Muslims. And Muhammed, once he’s in Medina, he is no longer just a prophet. He isn’t just continuing
to have his revelations according to Islamic tradition. But he essentially rules
over Medina, and governs it. So he’s starting to become
both a political ruler and a spiritual ruler. Now the Quraysh in Mecca
are still not happy. Because Muhammed is continuing to preach, and he’s continuing to get
more and more followers. And so you start having, at
first, a series of skirmishes between the armies of the Quraysh, or the members of the Quraysh, and some of the early Muslims. But these skirmishes eventually emerge into full on conflict. And here are some of
the significant battles that occurred between the Quraysh tribe, remember that’s Muhammed’s own tribe, and the early Muslims, the
early followers of Muhammed and his revelations. So most famously perhaps,
you have the Battle of Badr. Because this is the first time
that you have a significant confrontation between a very small, you wouldn’t even necessarily
call this an army, a small group of Muslims,
roughly a little over 300 according to Muslim tradition, versus 900 or a little over
900 on the Quraysh side. And the Muslims are
outnumbered three to one. But this results in a Muslim victory. And so you can imagine the
early Muslims start to see this as a turning tide. They were able to defeat
the powerful Quraysh tribe. Now the Quraysh weren’t happy with that. And roughly a year later
you have another battle outside of Medina on Mount Uhud. And once again, the Muslims,
which are now larger, but they continued to
be outnumbered even more than three to one, this
is closer to four to one right over here. And this results in a Quraysh victory. This is right over there. Outside, on the northern side
of what is now called Medina. But then a few years later
you have a significant battle. Where the Quraysh have
built a confederacy. And they wanna end the
teachings of Muhammed, they wanna end these
Muslims who are threatening, who’s preachings are
threatening the pilgrimage, the legitimacy of the
Quraysh tribe in Mecca. And so they laid siege
to the city of Medina. And as a defensive measure,
the Muslims in Medina, create a trench around the city. And that’s why this is called
the Battle of the Trench. And once again, according
to Islamic tradition, the Muslims are outnumbered three to one. So this is right over here,
the Battle of the Trench. In which the Muslims are victorious. And this is a significant
blow to the legitimacy, the prestige of the Quraysh tribe. A year later, you have
the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, between the Quraysh and the Muslims. And this is significant
because it’s starting to put these early Muslims
on the same footing as the powerful Quraysh tribe. It has some allowances for the
Muslims to make pilgrimages to the Kaaba. But then as we go into 630,
there’s an incident in which one tribe kills some
members of another tribe. Remember we’re still in
a very tribal society. And the other tribe, the one
that had some members killed, was aligned, was friendly
with the early Muslims. So the early Muslims
did not appreciate this. They send an ultimatum to the Quraysh. And the Quraysh essentially
say well that doesn’t matter, we don’t really take what
you have to say seriously. And they take one of the
options of the ultimatum, which is making the Treaty
of Hudaybiyyah null and void. So now that the treaty is
not there, and once again, this is according to Muslim traditions, which are our main accounts
that we have of this time. We then have in 630, 10000 Muslims, which is a very significant number. Remember only six years ago,
we’re talking about only 300 Muslims in the Battle of Badr. But 10000 Muslims march on Mecca. And they’re able to take
the city peacefully. And what this results in is
essentially most of the city, converting to Islam. And famously Muhammed goes into the Kaaba and destroys the idols there. And according to Islamic tradition, makes the Kaaba a center
of the Muslim faith. And it is even today. Now from that point, the
spread of Islam continues. You have Muhammed and his
armies, this green area is essentially what they
were able to conquer in the remainder of his life. He lives for another two years after the acceptance of Islam by Mecca. And they’re able to conquer
most of this dark green area here and as we’ll see,
shortly after his death, most of Arabia and even Persia, and within a few hundred years, a large chunk of the world were able to be conquered by these Muslim armies.

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59 Comments

  1. I wonder if as many extremist Islamic groups would exist if the Quran had been edited to fit the times the way the Bible has been.

  2. Muhammad PBUH did not come with a new religion, In fact Islam is a completion of the religion that Allah "god" revealed to the messengers "Prophets" of Allah, Muslims believes of all the prophets of Allah including Jesus PBUH Mosses PBUH Ibrahim PBUH and all the rest of the Prophets PBU them all.
    Allah through Islam gave humanity a way of life that will insure equality, peace, and prosperity… Islam gives guidelines and solutions for humanity in every aspect of life … One example is in business where Islam prohibit the interests in loans and trading money with money which if it was implemented, we wouldn't have the markets crash of 2008. Instead what Islam allows is the loaner would buy what the person asking for the loan wants and sell it for him with an increased price agreed by both of them and if the person could not pay his debt the bank for example would forfeit what he bought and sell it and gets his money and what left if there any should be given to the person who got the loan. this way the rich would still insure the security of there funds and the gap between the poors and the rich will not widen like what is happening today.. and the prove that this system works what happened in 2008 and why the Islamic banking sector survived the crash with minimum effects.

  3. Islam is the most peaceful believe and our rules of Islam say never kill anyone or make war exacpt if they start first and all the killing happening now in the name of Islam is not Ture they are not Muslims the are the European and the American ruining the name of Islam and they are acting like they really want to help

  4. guys who say Bible is the correct information send from god I am a Muslim and I say it is but the people who came after jesses changed it to what fit their needs so because of that God sent another profet to correct what was mistaken

  5. Mind = blown. Back then, first when I was told that Muhammad went to Medina, I thought they meant Medina in Fez (the old city of Fez).

  6. In your research or opnion; how did muhammid gain so many followers from 624 to 630? In 624 there was 300 fighting and in 6 short years that number increased to 10,000. That was a fast and large conversion.

  7. By the way, when reading arab words written in latin characters, read them all, you forgot the 1st y in hudaybiyyah and breathing out the h

  8. very matter of fact account from quran and Hadith….the violence therefore is quite explicit… monotheism by being exclusionist is violent towards non adherents. But when it becomes expansionist, all hell breaks loose. But tribal culture must have been ruthless. why did they have to write a book based on tribal laws to be followed forever? There seems to be political motive(and very vile one) behind penning down this book and even more appalling one behind still upholding it as a religious text.

  9. Hey Sal, you are relying way too much on Muslims' resources and all what you explained so far is from those resources, all lies. I'm Palestinian and Muhammed was full of hatred and killings of other tribes.

  10. I'm a Muslim and I find this series very interesting, one thing I'd to emphasise is that no army no matter how big or strong could have spread a free and peaceful spirituals like this before. It's not a Muslim habit to prefer war over peace and harmony.

  11. Prophet abraham with his son Ishamel built the Kaaba. Ishmael is the father of Arab Nation. While Isaac is the father of probably European nations

  12. Mecca didn't make money from pilgrimage, their prime source of wealth came from being the trade hub of the silk road for Arabia. Mecca featured a location with many idols so traders, both foreign and domestic had a place to pray to their god. Christian, Jewish and Zoroastrian idols were also located at Mecca. Early Muslims were persecuted by the Meccans because, like today, they caused havoc trying to denounce other faiths, Mecca was a polytheistic city because it was such a multicultural hub. Mecca also decided to pursue Muhammad and his followers because he was robbing trade convoys on rout to Mecca to essentially pay his dues to Medina for allowing him and his group to squat their.

  13. Islam is the most murderous group of all others on the planet. It has killed and oppressed more than communism in the 20th century, which is a staggering mark to compete with, to say the least. You shouldn't worry about being "polite", call Muhammad for what he was. A vicious murderer who ruled through plotical force to destroy any resistance and force non Muslims to convert.

  14. Why can't anyone find anything to do with mecca in 630?
    All that construction with no archeology to point to?
    No maps, no way Mohamad could pass lots wife (pillar of salt)
    Daily, no agriculture in mecca I mean Petra must be (Bekka)

    My real question is why do we in the west teach this? We require everything else to have evedience and the entire reason for school is to learn truth.
    Double standard only Islam is given so much pitty.
    Shouldn't be called Muslims but the excused, or fabricated
    No accountability
    Submit=Muslim
    They don't submit Muslims require everyone else to submit so we should be there Muslims and they should be our b%%$& just cause there so demanding lol

  15. I think you got quite a few parts wrong, and left out many things. If people want to learn about the beginnings of Islam they should refer to both secular and Islamic sources. As well as watching this video also be sure to watch something similar made by Nouman Ali Khan for example, to get a full picture.

  16. Usually, when people talk about abyssinia they say it's modern day Ethiopia and never mention Eritrea.
    it makes me happy when khan mentions Eritrea since I'm Eritrean! 🙂

  17. There is unqualified comment that Mohammad's wife was a Catholic, as was his mother and possibly his tutor. Your thoughts on this?

  18. at the moment you said " battle of the trench " my phone showed me its 19:14 (1914) and the azan started on my phone

  19. Aoa Khan Academy.. i have a question here. Muhammad (s.aw) first migrated from makkah to axum (ethopia) and from axum he migrated to jerasulem and from jerasulem he finally came to madina ?? is that the correct order? kindly reply me thanks

  20. Things I didn't know and now do to an extent 😉

    Mohamed was born relatively well-off, he later on glimpsed at the creator and (decided to) preach what he saw, he gained followers – which were obviously loyal to him enough to fight by him, there was not enough and they lost, he moved to another place and gained followers again, wiser and probably more numeral he then successfully defeated the main power in the local area – by the means of his 'followers' – which he gained by the preaching his seen truth … then he eventually prevailed and won dominance – end of part 2 )

  21. Muslims lost uhad because=
    Prophet (PBUH) had commanded the archers to be on the mountain. When Muslims thought they are winning archers changed there position. At the same time Khalid who was a leader of a army group attacked from the back of the mountain. Most Muslims escaped. Prophet (PBUH) was badly wounded. At last he and his some companions were successful to reach madinah.
    But after some time khalif visited madinah and accepted islam

  22. Very interesting one note is that the Quran was revealed over 23 years all in the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad. Subhanallah

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